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Both the United States and the European Union fund programs designed to develop the rule of law in transition countries. Despite significant expenditures in this area, however, neither has developed either a clear definition of what is meant by the rule of law or a catalogue of programs that can result in coordination of rule of law efforts. This article is the result of a presentation at a May 2010 policy conference at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, at which U.S. and EU government officials, scholars, and practitioners discussed the concept of rule of law and efforts to implement rule of law in transition countries. It introduces the issues discussed at the conference, summarizes the results, and introduces four articles resulting from the conference that are published in the same issue of the University of Pittsburgh Law Review.