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Climate change is a global phenomenon. Therefore, globalization is the necessary hermeneutical horizon if one wants to develop an analysis on the metamorphosis in which climate change could cause at a political, social, and economic level. Within this horizon, this paper shows how the relationship between the concept of the Anthropocene Epoch and the request for justice allows for framing a specific political interpretation of the effects of climate change. Such a peculiar political interpretation coincides with the claim for a climate justice and intergenerational equity. Indeed, in order to avoid the reduction of such a claim to the mere outcome of an ideological critique towards capitalism, the conception of climate justice needs to be sustained by a rational, ethical model. The thesis of this paper is that the ethics of responsibility, inspired by Hans Jonas' well-known philosophy, could work just as a promising rational foundation of the claim for a climate justice. The ethics of responsibility would be also aligned with the principles established by the study and analysis of the relationships between science, technology, and society.